Clement Greenberg This is Greenberg's breakthrough essay fromwritten for the Partisan Review when he was twenty-nine years of age and at the time more involved with literature than with painting. He came, later, to reject much of the essay -- notably the definition of kitsch which he later believed to be ill thought out as, indeed, it is.
Dreaming in Epistemology a. In his Meditations on First Philosophy he wanted to find out what we can believe with certainty and thereby claim as knowledge. He begins by stating that he is certain of being seated by the fire in front of him.
He then dismisses the idea that this belief could be certain because he has been deceived before in dreams where he has similarly been convinced Perspectives on plato essay he was seated by a fire, only to wake and discover that he was only dreaming that he was seated by a fire.
How can I know that I am not now dreaming? In answering the question, due to the sensory deception of dreams, Descartes believes that we cannot trust our senses in waking life without invoking a benevolent God who would surely not deceive us.
The phenomenon of dreaming is used as key evidence for the sceptical hypothesis that everything we currently believe to be true could be false and generated by a dream. A dream makes it feel as though the dreamer is carrying out actions in waking life, for during a dream we do not realize that it is a dream we are experiencing.
Descartes claims that the experience of a dream could in principle be indistinguishable from waking life — whatever apparent subjective differences there are between waking life and dreaming, they are insufficient differences to gain certainty that I am not now dreaming.
Descartes is left unsure that the objects in front of him are real — whether he is dreaming of their existence or whether they really are there. In this method, he would use any means to subject a statement or allegedly true belief to the most critical scrutiny.
There is, Descartes alleges, a sufficient similarity between the two experiences for dreamers to be routinely deceived into believing that they are having waking experiences while we are actually asleep and dreaming.
The dream argument has similarities to his later evil demon argument. According to this later argument, I cannot be sure anything I believe for I may just be being deceived by a malevolent demon.
Both arguments have the same structure: Even if the individuals happen to be right in their belief that they are not being deceived by an evil demon and even if individuals really are having a waking life experience, they are left unable to distinguish reality from their dream experiences in order to gain certainty in their belief that they are not now dreaming.
One main claim that has been replied to is the idea that there are no certain marks to distinguish waking consciousness from dreaming. Hobbes believed that an absence of the absurd in waking life was a key difference Hobbes, Part 1, Chapter 2.
Though sleeping individuals are too wrapped up in the absurdity of their dreams to be able to distinguish their states, an individual who is awake can tell, simply because the absurdity is no longer there during wakefulness. Locke compared real pain to dream pain.
He asks Descartes to consider the difference between dreaming of being in the fire and actually being in the fire Locke, Descartes thought that dreams are protean Hill, b. This protean claim was necessary for Descartes to mount his sceptical argument about the external world.
After all, if there was even one experience during waking life which simply could not occur during dreaming, then, in that moment at least, we could be sure we are awake and in contact with the external world, rather than dreaming.
Locke alleged that he had found a gap in this protean claim: The notion of pain occurring in a dream has now been put to the test in a number of scientific studies through quantitative analysis of the content of dream diaries in the case of ordinary dreams and also by participating lucid dreamers.
According to the empirical work then, Locke is wrong about his claim, though he might still query whether really agonizing and ongoing pain as in his original request of being in a fire might not be possible in dreams.
We are awake and not asleep dreaming if we can connect our current experiences to the overall course of our lives. Essentially, through using the principle of coherence, we can think more critically in waking life.
Hobbes seems to adhere to something like the principle of coherence in his appeal to absurdity as a key feature of dreams. Though dreams do have a tendency to involve a lack of critical thinking, it still seems possible that we could wake with a dream connecting to the overall course of our lives.
It is generally accepted that there is no certain way to distinguish dreaming from waking life, though the claim that this ought to undermine our knowledge in any way is controversial. Descartes relied on a notion of belief that was the same in both dreaming and waking life. Of course, if I have never believed, in sleep, that I was seated by the fire when I was actually asleep in bed, then none of my dreams challenge the perceptual and introspective beliefs I have during waking life.
Ichikawa agrees with Sosa that in dreams we imagine scenarios rather than believe we are engaged in scenarios as though awakebut he argues in contrast to Sosa, that this does not avoid scepticism about the external world. Even when dreams trade in imaginings rather than beliefs, the dreams still create subjectively indistinguishable experiences from waking experience.
I still cannot really tell the difference between the experiences. The new worry is whether the belief I have in waking life is really a belief, rather than an imagining during dreaming and so scepticism is not avoided, so Ichikawa claims.
The Ethics of Dreaming Since the late twentieth century, discussion of the moral and criminal responsibility of dreaming has been centred on sleep walking, where sleep-walkers have harmed others.
The assessment has typically been carried out in practical, rather than theoretical, settings, for example law courts.
Setting aside the notion of sleepwalking, philosophers are more concerned with the phenomenology of ordinary dreams. Does the notion of right and wrong apply to dreams themselves, as well as actions done by sleepwalkers?Ontological arguments are arguments, for the conclusion that God exists, from premises which are supposed to derive from some source other than observation of the world—e.g., from reason alone.
The Perspective of Plato and Aristotle on the Value of Art As literary critics, Plato and Aristotle disagree profoundly about the value of art in human society. The Socratic method is one of the most famous, least used, and least understood teaching and conversation practices.
The Socratic method of questioning is named after the Greek philosopher Socrates ( BC– BC), who lived in Athens Greece.
R. E. Allen’s superb new translation of Plato’s Symposium brings this classic text to life for modern readers. Allen supplements his translation with a commentary that not only enriches our understanding of Plato’s philosophy and the world of Greek antiquity but also provides insights into present-day philosophical concerns.
Influence Of The Philosophy Of Plato On Psychology Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: and various perspectives through time.
Philosophers such as Plato has developed many methods and types of thoughts in understanding the human psyche that has greatly influenced the many defined concepts of psychology as known today. Philosophy of Dreaming. According to Owen Flanagan (), there are four major philosophical questions about dreaming: 1.
How can I be sure I am not always dreaming?