Darwin, therefore, argued that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have universal cross-cultural counterparts. Darwin also detailed the virtues of experiencing emotions and the parallel experiences that occur in animals. This led the way for animal research on emotions and the eventual determination of the neural underpinnings of emotion. Contemporary More contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.
In order to carry out correct behaviour—that is to say, correct in relation to the survival of the individual—humans have developed innate drives, desires, and emotions and the ability to remember and learn. Such are angerpity, fear and the like, with their opposites. Some emotions are very specific, insofar as they concern a particular person, object, or situation.
Others, such as distress, joy, or depressionare very general. Some emotions are very brief and barely conscious, such as a sudden flush of embarrassment or a burst of anger.
An emotion may have pronounced physical accompaniments, such as a facial expressionor it may be invisible to observers. An emotion may be socially appropriate or inappropriate.
It may even be socially obligatory—e. Panic and fear, for example, are often thought to be kindred emotions, but there is a significant difference between the panic that is manifested in an irrational fear or a phobia and an intelligent fear—such as the fear of nuclear war—which requires a good deal of information and analysis.
Terror and horror, two other kindred emotions, are nevertheless distinct from fear. Or consider the huge family of hostile emotions akin to anger: The great variety and abundance of emotions suggest that the category of emotion may not be a single class of psychological phenomena but a large family of loosely related mental states and processes.
Although love and hate, for example, are often conceived of as polar opposites, it is worth noting as the plots of so many novels and dramas have made clear that they frequently coexist not as opposites but as complements. Moreover, love is often painful and destructive, and hatred, sometimes, can be positive.
Anger is indeed a negative feeling if not a hostile one directed toward another person, but it can be edifying for the person who is angry, and, in the appropriate context —a context in which one ought to be angry—it can have beneficial effects on a situation or a relationship.
Thus, the feminist movement took a major step forward when women realized that they had a right to be angry and much to be angry about. It may be, as Aristotle noted, that emotions are accompanied by pleasure or pain often bothbut they are too complex and often too subtle to be classified on that basis alone.
The study of emotions was long the province of ethics. For Aristotle, having the right amount of the right emotion in the right circumstances is the key to virtuous behaviour.
Although moral thinking about emotions has always been concerned with emotional extremes and malformations, as in psychopathology and madness, those phenomena have never been the primary reason for interest in the emotions. As Aristotle and the medieval moralists understood quite well, emotions are essential to a healthy human existence, and it is for that reason that their malfunction is so serious.
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Dec 30, · Yellow shows regions of increased sensation while blue areas represent decreased feeling in these composite images. Image courtesy of Lauri Nummenmaa, Enrico Glerean, Riitta Hari, and Jari Hietanen.
[Winter ] The biology of emotion—and what it may teach us about helping people to live longer. Could a sunny outlook mean fewer colds and less heart disease?. Do hope and curiosity somehow protect against hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory tract infections?
Do happier people live longer—and, if so, why? Real Self Confidence and Esteem is based in Emotion, not a Self Image To build self confidence and overcome low self esteem is to change how we feel emotionally about ourselves.
One of the most powerful, yet difficult, elements to master in photography is capturing emotion and feeling. A really great image is one that conveys a mood and pulls the viewer into the scene.