He is regarded as one of the most influential - and controversial - minds of the 20th century. His father was a merchant.
Universal ethical principles Principled conscience The understanding gained in each stage is retained in later stages, but may be regarded by those in later stages as simplistic, lacking in sufficient attention to detail.
Pre-conventional[ edit ] The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning.
Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional level consists of the first and second stages of moral development and is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner. A child with pre-conventional morality has not yet adopted or internalized society's conventions regarding what is right or wrong but instead focuses largely on external consequences that certain actions may bring.
For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished. It is "egocentric", lacking recognition that others' points of view are different from one's own. For example, a child's classmate tries to dare the child to skip school. The child would apply obedience and punishment driven morality by refusing to skip school because he would get punished.
Stage two self-interest driven expresses the "what's in it for me" position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever the individual believes to be in their best interest but understood in a narrow way which does not consider one's reputation or relationships to groups of people.
Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, but only to a point where it might further the individual's own interests. As a result, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect, but rather a "You scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours" mentality.
For the stage two theorist, the world's perspective is often seen as morally relative. An example of self-interest driven is when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore. The child asks, "what's in it for me?
The child is motivated by self-interest to do chores. Conventional[ edit ] The conventional level of moral reasoning is typical of adolescents and adults. To reason in a conventional way is to judge the morality of actions by comparing them to society's views and expectations. The conventional level consists of the third and fourth stages of moral development.
Conventional morality is characterized by an acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong. At this level an individual obeys rules and follows society's norms even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience.
Adherence to rules and conventions is somewhat rigid, however, and a rule's appropriateness or fairness is seldom questioned. Individuals are receptive to approval or disapproval from others as it reflects society's views. They try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations,  having learned that being regarded as good benefits the self.
Stage three reasoning may judge the morality of an action by evaluating its consequences in terms of a person's relationshipswhich now begin to include things like respect, gratitude, and the " golden rule ".
The intentions of actors play a more significant role in reasoning at this stage; one may feel more forgiving if one thinks that "they mean well". Moral reasoning in stage four is thus beyond the need for individual approval exhibited in stage three.
A central ideal or ideals often prescribe what is right and wrong. If one person violates a law, perhaps everyone would—thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules.
When someone does violate a law, it is morally wrong; culpability is thus a significant factor in this stage as it separates the bad domains from the good ones.
Most active members of society remain at stage four, where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force. Post-conventional moralists live by their own ethical principles—principles that typically include such basic human rights as life, liberty, and justice.
People who exhibit post-conventional morality view rules as useful but changeable mechanisms—ideally rules can maintain the general social order and protect human rights.
Rules are not absolute dictates that must be obeyed without question. Because post-conventional individuals elevate their own moral evaluation of a situation over social conventions, their behavior, especially at stage six, can be confused with that of those at the pre-conventional level.
Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts. Those that do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet "the greatest good for the greatest number of people".
Democratic government is ostensibly based on stage five reasoning. In Stage six universal ethical principles drivenmoral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws.
Legal rights are unnecessary, as social contracts are not essential for deontic moral action.Thomas Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy. The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes () is best known for his political thought, and deservedly so. Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are elicited by man, but not proper to him as a rational agent, they are called acts of man.
Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. March 1, Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley.
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.
Kohlberg began work on this topic while a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago in and expanded upon the theory throughout his life.. The theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six. Also, note that original sin is a condition, not something that people do.
It’s the normal spiritual and psychological condition of human . I think it only makes sense to seek out and identify structures of authority, hierarchy, and domination in every aspect of life, and to challenge them; unless a justification for them can be given, they are illegitimate, and should be .
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Kohlberg began work on this topic while a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago in and expanded upon the theory throughout his life..
The theory holds that moral .